Raaga Based Song Of The Day #68

Raaga Based Song of the Day: Toote huye khwabon ne….
Raag Darbari Kanada, Tal Kaherava

Salil Chowdhury with Mohammad Rafi, Bimal Roy and Shailendra

Today, 05 Sep, happens to be the death anniversary of Salil Chowdhury. A song by him, coming at the heels of the last post wherein we took up a delightful song in Raag Gara composed by Sachin Dev Burman and sung by Mohammad Rafi for Dev Anand, is only apt. Some of you would recall that Bimal Roy had asked SD Burman to compose songs for his 1958 movie Madhumati. However, SD Burman had told Bimal Roy that Salil da would do a much better job of accomplishing what Bimal Roy had in mind. Thus were born some of the greatest and most popular songs composed by Salil Chowdhury.

Salil da was influenced by the Western Classical collection of music with his father. His music, continued to have that metronomic Western beat, say, from Ghadi ghadi mera dil dhadake to, say, Jaaneman jaaneman tere do nayan. Eventually, we all know that Salil Chowdhury came up with a fusion music that was entirely his signature tune.

We have already taken up a song in Raag Bageshri on the 19th day: Jao jao Nand ke lala (Tal Tintal) (Please see: Raaga Based Song Of The Day #19). This one had been sung by Mohammad Rafi and has the same metronomic swing to it that is the signature of Salil da; even though this is a sad song.

We have completed sixty-six days of Raaga Based Songs of the Day. Our first post in the series was titled ‘Raaga Based Song Of The Day #1’ and the song was a Mohammad Rafi and Lata Mangeshkar song from the 1970 Shakti Samanta movie Pagla Kahin Ka: Tum mujhe youn bhula na paoge.  It is in Raag Jhinjhoti, Tal Kaherava.

Our sixty-seventh post or the last post was titled Raaga Based Song Of The Day #67 and the song was a Mohammad Rafi song from the 1965 Amarjeet movie Teen Devian starring Dev Anand with his three women, Simi Grewal, Kalpana and Nanda: and Balraj Sahni: Aise to na dekho. It is in Raag Gara, Tal Dadra.

This blog has a number of posts on Raaga based songs in Hindi movies titled similarly; for example: The Best Raaga Based Songs in Hindi Movies – Raaga Jhinjhoti – Part I‘.

In the last sixty-seven days of sharing Raaga based songs of the day, I have given you songs based on Raag Jhinjhoti, Gara, Bhimpalasi, Madhuvanti, Shivaranjani, Bihag, Pahadi, Sarang, Pilu, Bhairavi, Khammaj, Charukesi, Kalyan or Yaman, Desh, Malgunji, Kirwani, Kedar, Bageshri, Megh Malhar, Bhupali, Ahir Bhairav, Malkaush, Mand, Adana, Kafi, Rageshri, Jaunpuri, Tilang, Janasammohini, Chayanat, Shuddha Kalyan, Gaur Sarang, Jogiya, Asavari, Maru Bihag, Durga, Lalit, Puria Dhanashri, Bhinna Sahdja, Sohani, Multani, Patdeep, Jaijaiwanti, Tilak Kamod, Hemant, Basant Mukhari, Gujri Todi, Kalavati, Hamir, Bhatiyar, Gawati, Shyam Kalyan, Gorakh Kalyan, Madhamat Sarang and Manj Khammaj. The six raagas that have been repeated so far are Pahadi, the raaga of my home place in the Himalayas, Maru Bihag, Raag Kirwani, Jhinjhoti, Bhairavi and Gara. That makes a total of 55 raagas so far. Today, I am giving you a raaga that I should have given long time back but didn’t: Raag Darbari Kanada.

Today’s song has been sung by Mohammad Rafi on the lyrics of Shailendra and on a composition by Salil Chowdhury. As I said, it is in Raag Darbari Kanada, Tal Kaherava.

However, first, lets take up the value added learning of today. Today, we shall have a look at the emotions that raagas evoke.

We had taken up this subject, in brief, on the sixth day (Please see: Raaga Based Song Of The Day #6). Today, lets embark on the subject a little more comprehensively especially due to our yesterday’s post about the health benefits of raagas.

The word Raaga means colour or hue. That’s because, it was beleived that raagas could evoke diverse emotional responses in the audiences. Neuro-surgeons have now established that indeed raagas can evoke emotional responses ranging from happy, calm, tensed and sad.

Lets have a look at the findings of the National Brain Research Centre at Manesar, Haryana and the School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, UK:

The two institutes, for the first time, conducted a study to establish the kind of responses people experiences whilst listening to Hindustani Classical Raagas.

Playing music pieces composed by Pandit Mukesh Sharma, an eminent sarod player from New Delhi, the scientists got 122 study participants from India to rate their experiences across ‘alaap’ (slow, free flowing introductory part) and ‘gat’ (faster, rhythmic part) of twelve ragas.

Ragas indeed evoked an entire gamut of emotional responses,” says Avantika Mathur, who conducted the study led by Nandini Chatterji Singh at NBRC.

The scientists found that emotions changed as the tempo picked up from alaap to gat. For instance, emotional ratings for ragas like Desh and Tilak Kamod shifted from ‘calm/soothing’ in the slower arrhythmic alaap to ‘happy’ in the faster rhythmic gat. Similarly, the emotional responses for Shree and Miyan ki Todi shifted from ‘sad’ to ‘tensed’.

Chatterjee Singh says specific tonic intervals also emerged as robust predictors of emotional response. “Ragas that were rated as happy and calming comprised primarily of ‘shuddh swaras’ (pure notes) but the addition of ‘komal swaras’ (softer notes) introduced sadness, longing and melancholy,” she says.

In specific, ‘komal re’ was found to be a direct predictor of aversiveness (or negative valence). The scientists suggest that ‘komal re’ with its tension and high ‘yearning’ towards the tonic may build a narrative of hope or fear, the resolution of which brings associations of tension, yearning and a release of energy.

In Hindustani music, a tonic interval is defined in terms of its relation to the tonic which is the base ‘Sa’.

Chatterjee Singh says the mood-defining qualities of Hindustani ragas have been documented in ancient Indian performing arts treatise such as the ‘Natya Shastra’ by Sage Bharat. The word ‘raaga’ originates in Sanskrit and is defined as ‘the act of coloring or dyeing’ (the mind and mood or emotions in this context) and therefore refers metaphorically to ‘any feeling or passion especially love, affection, sympathy, desire, interest, motivation, joy, or delight’.

Mathur, who wants to conduct the study on a bigger scale with musically untrained and trained people, adds that their future research will try to look at the neural networks underlying emotion perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Finally, lets have a look at some of the raagas and the emotions these are known to evoke:

(Please remember that time and again I have brought out that the optimal mood of the raaga is felt when it is played at a certain time of the day)

1. Raag Bilawal

Nature of the Raga – ‘Shant’ – Serene, Quiet, Peaceful

Timing – Early hours of the morning

2. Raag Bhairav

Nature of the Raga – ‘Shant’ – Serene, Quiet, Peaceful

Timing – Morning

3. Raag Bhairavi

Nature of the Raga – ‘Gambhir’ – Serious

Timing – Evening

4. Raag Bhupali

Nature of the Raga – ‘Shant’ – Serene, Quiet, Peaceful

Timing – Early hours of the night

5. Raag Vihag

Nature of the Raga – ‘Karun’ – Sad, Compassionate

Timing – Second half of the night

6. Raag Desh

Nature of the Raga – ‘Karun’ – Sad, Compassionate

Timing – Second half of the night

7. Raag Bhim Palasi

Nature of the Raga – ‘Shant’ – Serene, Quiet, Peaceful

Timing – Third half of the day

8. Raag Peelu

Nature of the Raga – ‘Karun’ – Sad, Compassionate

Timing – Third half of the day

9. Raag Tilak Kamud

Nature of the Raga – ‘Chanchal’

Timing – Second half of the night

10. Raag Bageshri

Nature of the Raga – ‘Gambhir’ – Serious

Timing – Afternoon

11. Raag Purvi

Nature of the Raga – ‘Gambhir’ – Serious

Timing – Evening

12. Raag Vrindavani Sarang

Nature of the Raga – ‘Chanchal’

Timing – Afternoon

At INK2012, celebrated classical violinist H K Venkatram demonstrates the brilliance of Indian raga music. Watch as Venkatram illustrates how a change in one note of a raga can alter the emotions conveyed and affect the mood of the listener.

As I mentioned, today’s song is composed in Raag Darbari Kanada, Tal Kaherava.

Raag Darbari Kanada belongs to the Asavari Thaat. We saw that Kafi Thaat has Komal Gandhar and Komal Nishad. Now, if you add Komal Dhaivat to Kafi Thaat, you get Asavari. Asavari thaat has the mood of tyaag and renunciation to it. Its Jati is Sampoorna-Sampoorna Vakra, that is all seven notes in Aaroha and Avaroha, but twisted. The time for singing this raag is third part of night, that is midnight to 3 AM. Darbari Kanada, as the name suggests, is a raaga of Carnatic music. It was brought into Hindustani stream by Miyan Tansen in the Darbar of Emperor Akbar.

Some of the songs composed in Raag Darbari Kanada are:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
Dil Jalta Hai
O Duniya Ke Rakhwale
Hum Tumse Mohabbat
Nainheen Ko Raah Dikha
Ud Ja Bhanwar
Mitwa Laut Aye Ri
Mujhe Tumse Kuch Bhi
Mat Samjho Neer Bahati
Mohabbat Ki Jhuthi Kahani
Koi Matwala
Jhanak Jhanak Tori Baje
Beech Bhanwar Mein
Yeh Hawa Yeh Raat
Sitaron Ki Mehfil
Dekho Ri Koi
Teri Duniya Mein
Hai Isi Mein Pyar Ki Aabroo
Tujhe Kya Sunaoon
Mujhe Raat Din
Mere Pyar Mein Tujhe
Lapak Jhapak To Aa Re
Daiya Re Daiya
Kali Ghodi Dwar Khadi
Gori Tori Paijaniya
Jiya Mein Laga

Sabr Ka Phal Hai
Tora Man Darpan
Sur Bin Taan Nahin
Suhani Chandni Raatein
Radhey Ke Pyare
Hey Chandrabadan
Taqdir Bani Ban Kar
Aur Kab Tak Aansoo
Ab Mori Vinti
Tumse Hi Ghar Ghar
Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna
Jo Chala Gaya
Is Dil Ki Daastan
Satyam Shivam Sundaram

Unki Gali Mein

Dekho Ri Koi
Rang Deeni

Pehli Nazar
Baiju Bawara
Awara
Bhakt Surdas
Rani Roopmati
Sangeet Samrat Tansen
Kanhaiya
Naata
Mughal-E-Azam
Love In Tokyo
Mere Huzoor
Dard
Sangdil
Udan Khatola
Ganga Ki Lehren
Baware Nain
Anpadh
Aankhri Daon
Maine Jeena Seekh Liya
Suhagan
Boot Polish
Leader
Chashme-baddoor
Mehbooba
Archana

Atithi
Kajal
Payal Ki Jhankar
Mukti
Amar
Ram Vivah
Mela
Mahatma Kabir
Taj
Bhabhi Ki Chooriyan
Shahid
Saathi
Anhoni
Satyam Shivam Sundaram

Nazaare

Ganga Ki Lehrein
Dev

Mukesh
Rafi
Mukesh
K. L. Saigal
Manna Dey
Manna Dey
Mukesh
Lata
Lata
Lata
Manna Dey
Suraiya
Talat Mehmood
Lata
Asha
Mukesh
Lata
Rafi
Mukesh
Rafi
Manna Dey
Asha
Yesudas , Hemlata
Manna Dey
Manna Dey

Manna Dey
Asha
Sulakshana Pandit
Mukesh
Asha
Rajkumari
Shamshad Begum
Asha
Lata
Mukesh
Rafi
Mukesh
Lata
Lata

Mukesh

Asha
Kailash Kher

 

(Poster courtesy: Saavn)

The song Toote huye khwabon ne is from the 1958 Bimal Roy movie Madhumati starring Dilip Kumar, Vyjayanthimala, Pran and Johnny Walker. Most of the movie’s songs became super-hits. These were penned by Shailendra and composed by Salil Chowdhury:

1. “Aaja Re Pardesi” Lata Mangeshkar 04:26
2. “Chadh Gayo Papi Bichhua” Lata Mangeshkar, Manna Dey 05:23
3. “Dil Tadap Tadap Ke” Mukesh, Lata Mangeshkar 03:27
4. “Ghadi Ghadi Mora Dil Dhadke” Lata Mangeshkar 03:11
5. “Hai Bichhua Hai Re Hai” Lata Mangeshkar 01:55
6. “Ham Haal-e-Dil Sunaenge” Mubarak Begum 03:26
7. “Jungle Mein Mor Naacha” Mohammad Rafi 03:07
8. “Kancha Le Kanchi Lai Lajo” Asha Bhonsle, Sabita Chowdhury & Ghulam Mohammad 03:24
9. “Suhana Safar Aur Yeh Mausam” Mukesh 03:44
10. “Tan Jale Man Jalta Rahe” Dwijen Mukherjee 03:22
11. “Toote Huye Khwabon Ne” Mohammad Rafi 03:42
12. “Zulmi Sang Aankh Ladi” Lata Mangeshkar 04:05

One has to hand it to God of Songs: Mohammad Rafi for having sung a song for the hero Dilip Kumar and comedian Johnny Walker in the same movie; talks highly of his versatility.

Please enjoy in Raag Darbari Kanada, Tal Kaherava: Toote huye khwabon ne…

TuuTe hue Kvaabo.n ne, hamako ye sikhaayaa hai
Dil ne, dil ne jise paayaa thaa, aa.Nkho.n ne ga.nvaayaa hai
TuuTe hue Kvaabo.n ne

Ham Dhuu.NDhate hai.n unako, jo milake nahii.n milate
RuThe hai.n na jaane kyuu.N, (mehamaan mere dil ke – 2)
Kyaa apanii tamannaa thii, kyaa saamane aayaa hai
Dil ne, dil ne …
TuuTe hue …

LauT aaI sadaa merii, Takaraa ke sitaaro.n se
Uja.Dii huI duniyaa ke, (sunasaan kinaaro.n se – 2)
Par ab ye ta.Dapanaa bhii, kuchh kaam na aayaa hai
Dil ne, dil ne …
TuuTe hue …

We have intended to learn about Raaga based music whilst we entertain ourselves with Raaga based songs. So, lets, once again, take stock of our collective learning so far:

  1. On the first day we learnt about the Raaga system devised by Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, which is the prevalent system in Hindustani Classical Music and based on ten Thaats.
  2. On the second day we learnt about Tal or Taal.
  3. On the third day we learnt about characteristics of Raagas that included Swar, Jati, Thaat, Arohana and Avarohana, Vadi, Samvadi and Pakad.
  4. On the fourth day, we learnt about Sargam.
  5. On the fifth day, we learnt about notations used in Indian classical music or simply Swar Lipi.
  6. On the sixth day, we learnt about the Ras (sentiments) that Raagas evoke.
  7. On the seventh day, we learnt about various types of Swar: Shuddha, Achal, Vikrut, Komal and Teevra.
  8. On the eighth day, we learnt the parts of a composition in Indian Classical Music.
  9. On the ninth day, we learnt the names of some of the popular instruments used in Indian Classical Music.
  10. On the tenth day, we learnt about the sources of names of Raagas.
  11. On the eleventh day, we learnt about why Bhairavi is the first raag to be taught to beginners and also why it is the last in a performance.
  12. On the twelfth day, we learnt about Khammaj Thaat.
  13. On the thirteenth day, we learnt about Tal Punjabi Theka or Sitarkhani.
  14. On the fourteenth day, we learnt about Alap.
  15. On the fifteenth day, we learnt about List of Raagas (Raagmala) in my favourite book: Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
  16. On the sixteenth day, we learnt about tips for raaga identification.
  17. On the seventeenth day, we learnt the basics of Gharana system.
  18. On the eighteenth day, we learnt about Filmi Sangeet.
  19. On the nineteenth day, we learnt about the commonest Tal in Raagas: Tintal.
  20. On the twentieth day, we learnt about the Kafi Thaat.
  21. On the twenty-first day, we learnt a little more in detail about the classification of Raagas.
  22. On the twenty-second day, we learnt the essential differences between Bhairavi and Bhairav.
  23. On the twenty-third day, we learnt a little more in detail about the Jati or Jaati of a raaga.
  24. On the twenty-fourth day, we learnt details of Thaat Bilawal, the most basic thaat in the Bhatkhande’s system of raagas.
  25. On the twenty-fifth day, we learnt about Tintal.
  26. On the twenty-sixth day, we learnt in detail about the Raaga – Samay linkage.
  27. On the twenty-seventh day, we learnt about Lehar.
  28. On the twenty-eighth day, we learnt about the history of the Hindustani Music.
  29. On the twenty-ninth day, we learnt about Dhrupad.
  30. On the thirtieth day, we learnt about Rupaktal that I was introduced to, a few months back, by my friend Anand Desai.
  31. On the thirty-first day, we learnt about Khayal.
  32. On the thirty-second day, we learnt about Thumri.
  33. On the thirty-third day, we learnt about Tappa.
  34. On the thirty-fourth day, we learnt about Tarana.
  35. On the thirty-fifth day, we learnt about Tal Dipchandi (Moghali).
  36. On the thirty-sixth day, we learnt about Tabla.
  37. On the thirty-seventh day, we learnt about Kirtan.
  38. On the thirty-eighth day, we learnt about Pakhawaj.
  39. On the thirty-ninth day, we learnt about Hori.
  40. On the fortieth day, we learnt about Dadra.
  41. On the forty-first day, we learnt about Kajri.
  42. On the forty-second day, we learnt about Chaiti.
  43. On the forty-third day, we learnt about Sarangi.
  44. On the forty-fourth day, we learnt about Shehnai.
  45. On the forty-fifth day, we learnt about Sarod.
  46. On the forty-sixth day, we learnt about Bansuri.
  47. On the forty-seventh day, we learnt about Ektal and Tanpura.
  48. On the forty-eighth day, we learnt about Veena.
  49. On the forty-ninth day, we repeated our learning of Veena with a small excitement added.
  50. On the fiftieth day, we learnt about Dilruba/Esraj.
  51. On the fifty-first day, we learnt about Jaltarang.
  52. On the fifty-second day we learnt about Qawwali.
  53. On the fifty-third day, we learnt about Sitar.
  54. On the fifty-fourth day, we learnt about Surbahar.
  55. On the fifty-fifth day, we learnt about Harmonium.
  56. On the fifty-sixth day, we learnt about Santoor.
  57. On the fifty-seventh day, we learnt about Swarmandal.
  58. On the fifty-eighth day, we learnt about the Shruti Box.
  59. On the fifty-ninth day, we learnt about Alankar.
  60. On the sixtieth day, we learnt about singing in Aakaar.
  61. On the sixty-first day, we learnt about the Classification of Indian Musical Instruments.
  62. On the sixty-second day, we learnt a little about Carnatic Music.
  63. On the sixty-third day, we learnt about Natya Shastra.
  64. On the sixty-fourth day, we learnt about evolution of musical instruments in India down the ages.
  65. On the sixty-fifth day, we learnt about Riyaaz.
  66. On the sixty-sixth day, we looked at a list of Raagas in Hindustani Classical Music.
  67. On the sixty-seventh day, we learnt about the health benefits of raagas.
  68. And today, on the sixty-eighth day, we learnt a little more comprehensively about the moods and emotions that raagas evoke.

There is much more still to be learnt and enjoyed.

Please stay tuned!

© 2017, Sunbyanyname. All rights reserved.

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2 Comments

  1. Wow . A perfect post based on well research facts . Invaluable store of joy specifically to whom those who are well versed in raga system of music.