Raaga Based Song of the Day: Dil ki kashti bhanwar mein aayi hai….
Raag Gorakh Kalyan, Tal Kaherava
For the last two days I have been trying to cover up for not having given you adequate songs in Raag Kalyan and its variations. With yesterday’s song in Raag Kalyan, Tal Dadra, I have given you now three songs in Raag Kalyan: I had given you a song in Raag Kalyan earlier on the 14th day (Lagta nahin ahai dil mera ujade dayaar mein) (Please see: ‘Raaga Based Song Of The Day #14‘). However, the entire song was in Alaap and hence didn’t have a Tal. Then I had given you a song in Raag Shuddha Kalyan (Tal Kaherava): Rasik balma; being my #1 favourite of Lata Mangeshkar (Please see: ‘Raaga Based Song Of The Day #33‘). Yesterday I gave you a song in Shyam Kalyan: Youn neend se vo jaan-e-chaman (Tal Dadra).
Today’s song’s raaga has Kalyan only in the name and bears no resemblance to Kalyan raaga or thaat. It is in Raag Gorakh Kalyan, Tal Kaherava.
This blog has many posts on the Lyricist – Music Director combination of Shakeel Badayuni with Naushad Ali. I consider them the best pair that Hindi movie songs ever saw. Today’s song is from their 1967 movie Palki and the song was sung by Lata Mangeshkar.
We have completed sixty-three days of Raaga Based Songs of the Day. Our first post in the series was titled ‘Raaga Based Song Of The Day #1’ and the song was a Mohammad Rafi and Lata Mangeshkar song from the 1970 Shakti Samanta movie Pagla Kahin Ka: Tum mujhe youn bhula na paoge. It is in Raag Jhinjhoti, Tal Kaherava.
Our sixty-third post or the last post was titled ‘Raaga Based Song Of The Day #63‘ and the song was a Mukesh song from the 1961 Pramod Chakravorty movie Sanjog starring Pradeep Kumar and Anita Guha: Bhooli hui yaadon mujhe itna na sataao. It is in Raag Kalyan, Tal Dadra.
This blog has a number of posts on Raaga based songs in Hindi movies titled similarly; for example: ‘The Best Raaga Based Songs in Hindi Movies – Raaga Darbari Kanada – Part I‘.
In the last sixty-three days of sharing Raaga based songs of the day, I have given you songs based on Raag Jhinjhoti, Gara, Bhimpalasi, Madhuvanti, Shivaranjani, Bihag, Pahadi, Sarang, Pilu, Bhairavi, Khammaj, Charukesi, Kalyan or Yaman, Desh, Malgunji, Kirwani, Kedar, Bageshri, Megh Malhar, Bhupali, Ahir Bhairav, Malkaush, Mand, Adana, Kafi, Rageshri, Jaunpuri, Tilang, Janasammohini, Chayanat, Shuddha Kalyan, Gaur Sarang, Jogiya, Asavari, Maru Bihag, Durga, Lalit, Puria Dhanashri, Bhinna Sahdja, Sohani, Multani, Patdeep, Jaijaiwanti, Tilak Kamod, Hemant, Basant Mukhari, Gujri Todi, Kalavati, Hamir, Bhatiyar, Gawati and Shyam Kalyan. The only five raagas that have been repeated so far are Pahadi, the raaga of my home place in the Himalayas, Maru Bihag, Raag Kirwani, Jhinjhoti and Bhairavi. That makes a total of 52 raagas so far. Today, I am giving you a song in a new raag Gorakh Kalyan. That makes it 53 raagas so far.
Today, I give you a song sung by Lata Mangeshkar on the lyrics of Shakeel Badayuni and on a composition by Naushad. As I said, it is in Raag Gorakh Kalyan, Tal Kaherava.
However, first, lets take up the value added learning of today. Today, we shall learn about the evolution of musical instruments in India from ancient times (Please read this in conjunction with the Classification of Indian Musical Instruments that I had put up three days ago (Please read: ‘Raaga Based Song Of The Day #61‘).
Musical Instruments are a major part of music making in all forms of music including Indian music. Over a period of time, both in classical and folk music, varied instruments were developed. Lets have a look at them down the ages.
Vedic Music (2500 BC – 1000 BC)
Vedic literature refers to various types of musical instruments. The bow-shaped Veena with many varieties such as Godhaa, Vakraa, Alabu, Kapishirsha Veena are mentioned in Vedic texts. Other stringed instruments were Aaghaati or Kaand Veena (like todays Ektari), Gargar (like harp) and Waan (hundred string lute). The Dundubhi (drum), Bhoo-Dundubhi (earthern drum) and Talav (single drum) were percussion instruments; and Venu (flute), Tunav (like a war trumpet Tutaari), Naali (metal flute), Bakur (two piped flute), Karadhuni (conch attached to flute) were blowing instruments during Vedic period.
In the epics, Buddhist & Jain sources, many musical instruments are mentioned such as – The percussion instruments mentioned are Marduk, Dardur, Mridang, Dindim, Panaw, Anak, Adambar. Cymbals such as Patah & Zarzar are mentioned in Panini’s grammar text. The string instruments – Veena, Gargar. Blowing instruments – Venu, Vamshi, Tunaw, Shankha, Bheri.
Natya Shastra (3th century AD)
By the time of NatyaShastra, there was much development in instruments; naturally NatyaShastra mentions several musical instruments and the way they should be played. It classifies musical instruments in to four categories –
(1) Tata (lutes)
(2) Sushira (flute)
(3) Ghana (cymbals or solid bodied isntruments)
(4) Awanadhha (drums).
This classification given by Bharat became a role model of further studies and classification of instruments and which is actually valid till date.
String instruments – Chitra (seven stringed lute), Vipanchi (nine stringed lute), Ghoshaa (prototype of Tanpura) & Kachhapi Veena.
Blowing instruments – Vamsha and Venu (bamboo flutes), Shankha (coanch), Tundakini and Tutari (war trumpets),
Percussion instruments – Mridanga, Dardur, TriPushkar, Dundubhi, Panav, Dindim, Duff, Zallari.
Solid bodied instruments – Taal, Patah, Ghanta – these instruments were used to keep rhythm with showing Sam & Kaal divisions of Taal.
One can see many of these instruments in paintings in Ajanta caves & sculptures at Ellora, Sanchi, etc.
Sangeet Ratnakar (13th century AD)
In the sixth chapter ‘Waadyadhyaay’ of Sangeet Ratnakar, Sharangdeva gives explanation of classification of instruments into four categories, manufacturing and playing techniques of instruments, as following –
String instruments – Ekatantri (single stringed instrument, todays Ekatari), Tritantrika (three strings), Jantra, MattaKokila (21 stringed lute, todays Swar Mandal), Alapini Veena (a drone instruments resembling to Tanpura), Kinnari Veena (Veena with three drones), Chitra (seven stringed lute), Vipanchi (nine stringed lute), RavanHasta (todays Ravanhathha or Koka).
Blowing instruments – Venu (9 inch long and thumb shaped bamboo flute with seven holes for producing note) and Vamsha, Pawa, Murali (bamboo flutes), Kahala (metal flute), Shankha (coach), Shring, Madhukari (Horns), Tundakini and Tutari (war trumpets)
Percussion instruments – Mardal, Dundubhi, Tumbaki, Ghat, Mridanga, Dardur. There is a mention of many folk percussion instruments such as Hudukka, Kudukka, Selluka, Dhakka, Runja, Damaruk.
Solid bodied instruments – Taal, Patah, Ghanta, Kshudra Ghantika, Jaya Ghanta, Patta, Shukti. The dancer’s anklets (ghungru) were called as ‘Ghargharikaa’.
Medieval Period & Modern Period
In the last seven centuries, there is much addition and replacements in instruments due to a vast change in performing tradition and techniques.
String instruments – There are many stringed instruments to which one can classify in different categories, such as instruments to play with bow or pluck, instruments having frets and fretless ones, instruments with skins or wooden sound post, instruments having resonating strings, etc. Tanpura became an essential drone instrument with emergence of Dhrupad and Khayal to provide base note to singer.
The ancient Veena was replaced with Been or RudraVeena with two drones and frets. There are other instruments similar to Been such as VichitraVeena, Gotaa Been, etc. Sitar, SurBahar, Kachhawa belong to a family of string instruments which have frets and played in solo style. The development of Sitar was a major phenomenon in 19th cent which made a change in instrumental styles or Gatkari formats (Alap-Jod-Jhala, Masitkhani Gat, Razakhani Gat, Tant Ang and Gayaki Ang playing).
Sarangi originated from folk music, became an important accompanying instrument by the rise of Khayal & Thumari. Solo concert status was given to Sarangi by Bundu Khan and Ram Narayan. Other instruments in the family of Sarangi are Kamaicha, Sarinda, Chikara, Ravanhathha. With combination of Sitar and Sarangi, the instruments like Dilruba, Israj, Taus, and Taar Shehnai were made.
Rabab was modified into Sarod which became a prominent solo instrument under Wazir Khan, Allauddin Khan, Hafiz Ahmed Khan, Amjad Ali Khan. SurSingar was invented with combination of Sarangi, Sarod and Sitar by Ust Allauddin Khan.
The western violin was adapted in Indian music in last century and was popularized by Pt Gajananbuwa Joshi, V G Jog, N. Rajam & D K Datar. One can find similar instruments such as Ravanhathha, Penna, Banam in folk music of India. SwarMandal or Kanun was used for tonal support while singing. Ekatari, Tuntune, Gopichand, Tingri, Anand Lahari are the single stringed instruments basically used to maintain tempo rather than providing base note.
Santoor became very popular under propagation by Pt. Shivkumar Sharma.
Along with development of this wide spectrum of stringed instruments Gharanas/Baaj of playing also developed such as Seniya/Maihar Gharana (Ust Allauddin Khan, Ust Ali Akbar Khan, Pt Ravi Shankar, Pt. Nikhil Banerji), Itawa/Gauripur Gharana (Vilayat Khan, Imrat Khan, Shahid Parvez), Jafferkhani Baaj (Abdul Halim Jaffer Khan), etc.
Blowing instruments – Many varieties of flutes were made such as Bansuri, Venu, Pawa, Pawari, Murali (bamboo flutes). Shehnai, NaagSwaram, Sundri are blowing instruments with reeds. Pungi, Shing, Kahal, Karna, Shankha, Tutari are some folk instruments in blowing category. Ust. Bismillah Khan, Pt. Pannalal Ghosh and Pt. Hariprasad Chaurasia gave concert status to Shehnai and Bansuri. Harmonium or Samvadini was derived from European church Organ and from last hundred years, it has become a main accompanying instrument for Indian music. Many Harmonium players such as Govindrao Tembe, Vithhalrao Korgaonkar, P. Madhukar, Govindrao Patwardhan, Manohar Chimote, Dr. Arawind Thatte, etc have cultivated solo playing technique and given concert status to Harmonium. (Though Harmonium is classified under key-board instruments in western music, in Indian music is falls in the category of blowing instruments because the basic sound production of Harmonium depends on air blow.)
Percussion instruments – Pakhawaj or Mridang became important percussion instruments in Dhrupad genre and Tabla were a chief instrument for Khayal genre. One can find other percussion instruments such as Khol, Dhol, Dholak, Dholaki, Sambal, Halgi, Duff, Nagara, and Tasha in folk music and Khanjira, Ghatam, Mardal, Edakka, Timil in south Indian music. Due to advent of Tabla as a solo instrument, there was emergence of many Gharanas such as Lucknow, Delhi, Benaras, Fariqabad, Ajrada etc. One can easily make a list of dozens of celebrated Tabla and Pakhawaj players in yester century, to name a few, Thirkawa, Amir Hussain Khan, Samta Prasad, Kishen Maharaj, Allarakha & Zakir Hussain, etc.
Solid bodied instruments – Taal, Morchang, Zanza, Manjira, Kartaal, Chimta, Khulkhula, Ghanta, Nupur.
There is a group of ‘Tarang’ instruments which are hybrid instruments, such as Jal-Tarang, Tabla-Tarang, Kaashtha-Tarang, Kaach-Tarang, Patti-Tarang.
Earlier there was an idiom that stated ‘Uttam Gana, Madhyam Bajana, Kanishta Nachanaa’ (vocal music is supreme, instrumental is secondary and dancing is lower form of art). But in the modern age, with concept in music been analyzed with rationality and equality, this hierarchy is outdated and all three forms of art under music are given equal status. So, in modern times, instrumental music also have flourished to a pinnacle.
As I mentioned, today’s song is composed in Raag Gorakh Kalyan, Tal Kaherava.
Raag Gorakh Kalyan is not even associated with Kalyan Thaat in Bhatkhande’s syestem of raagas. The Kalyan in its name is misleading since it contains not the slightest trace of the Kalyan raag or thaat. Some suggest, perhaps apocryphally, that it is named in honour of Sant Gorakhnath. Raag Gorakh Kalyan, on the other hand, belongs to Khammaj Thaat. Its Jati is Surtar-Audhav, that is, only four notes (Swar) in Aaroha (Gandhar, Pancham and Nishad Varjya) and five notes in Avroha (Gandhar and Pancham Vrajya). All are shuddha notes except Nishad in Avroha, which is Komal. It is sung during the second prahar of the night, that is, between 9 PM and midnight. Belonging to Khammaj thaat, Raag Gorakh Kalyan is indeed a very sweet melody. It is possible to get shades of raag Durga and Bageshri in Gorakh Kalyan. However inclusion of komal Ni and restricted use of Pa in Gorakh Kalyan helps to keep its identity distinct from both these raagas.
I do not know of any other Hindi films songs composed in raag Gorakh Kalyan. We could expect this from Naushad since the credit for introducing raaga based songs in Hindi movies goes to him.
The song Dil ki kashti bhanwar mein aayi hai is from the 1967 Mahesh Kaul and SU Sunny movie Palki that starred Rajendra Kumar and Waheeda Rehman. The movie had some very beautiful songs penned by Shakeel Badayuni and composed by Naushad such as: Dil-e-betaab ko seene se lagaana hoga, Kal raat zindagi se mulaqaat ho gayi, and Jaane waale tera khuda haafiz.
This song as a fervent appeal to Khuda would remind you of another one from Mughal-e-Azam, also sung by Lata Mangeshkar when Anarkali was chained and put in a dungeon by Emperor Akbar for the crime of being in love with Prince Salim: Beqas pe karm keejiye sarkar-e-madina.
Please enjoy in Raag Gorakh Kalyan, Tal Kaherava: Dil ki kashti bhanwar mein aayi hai….
(Note: The expression “Kamali wale teri duhayi hai” refers to Prophet Mohammad. ‘Kamali’ means a blanket and Prophet Mohammad was to be found in a black blanket; hence sometimes, he is referred to as ‘Kali kamali wale’)
Tera sahara mil jaye
Badhti hui maujen ruk jayen
Kashti ko kinara mil jaye
Dil ki kashti bhanwar mein aayi hai
Kamali vale teri duhayi hai
Dil ki kashti bhanwar me aayi haiYa nabi meri iltzah sun le,
Tu agar sun le to khuda sun le
Maine tujhe hi ko lau lagai hai
Dil ki kashti bhanwar me aayi haiUljahno mein hai aaj dil mera
Kya kahun khauf hai zamane ka
Chup rahun main to bewafai hai
Dil ki kashti bhanwar me aayi hai
Kamali vale teri duhayi haiHai do rahe pe kafila dil ka
Tujh pe chhoda hai faisala dil ka
Tere aage jabeen jhukayi hai
Dil ki kashti bhanwar me aayi hai
Kamali vale teri duhayi haihttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIG6KX3at6I
We have intended to learn about Raaga based music whilst we entertain ourselves with Raaga based songs. So, lets, once again, take stock of our collective learning so far:
- On the first day we learnt about the Raaga system devised by Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, which is the prevalent system in Hindustani Classical Music and based on ten Thaats.
- On the second day we learnt about Tal or Taal.
- On the third day we learnt about characteristics of Raagas that included Swar, Jati, Thaat, Arohana and Avarohana, Vadi, Samvadi and Pakad.
- On the fourth day, we learnt about Sargam.
- On the fifth day, we learnt about notations used in Indian classical music or simply Swar Lipi.
- On the sixth day, we learnt about the Ras (sentiments) that Raagas evoke.
- On the seventh day, we learnt about various types of Swar: Shuddha, Achal, Vikrut, Komal and Teevra.
- On the eighth day, we learnt the parts of a composition in Indian Classical Music.
- On the ninth day, we learnt the names of some of the popular instruments used in Indian Classical Music.
- On the tenth day, we learnt about the sources of names of Raagas.
- On the eleventh day, we learnt about why Bhairavi is the first raag to be taught to beginners and also why it is the last in a performance.
- On the twelfth day, we learnt about Khammaj Thaat.
- On the thirteenth day, we learnt about Tal Punjabi Theka or Sitarkhani.
- On the fourteenth day, we learnt about Alap.
- On the fifteenth day, we learnt about List of Raagas (Raagmala) in my favourite book: Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
- On the sixteenth day, we learnt about tips for raaga identification.
- On the seventeenth day, we learnt the basics of Gharana system.
- On the eighteenth day, we learnt about Filmi Sangeet.
- On the nineteenth day, we learnt about the commonest Tal in Raagas: Tintal.
- On the twentieth day, we learnt about the Kafi Thaat.
- On the twenty-first day, we learnt a little more in detail about the classification of Raagas.
- On the twenty-second day, we learnt the essential differences between Bhairavi and Bhairav.
- On the twenty-third day, we learnt a little more in detail about the Jati or Jaati of a raaga.
- On the twenty-fourth day, we learnt details of Thaat Bilawal, the most basic thaat in the Bhatkhande’s system of raagas.
- On the twenty-fifth day, we learnt about Tintal.
- On the twenty-sixth day, we learnt in detail about the Raaga – Samay linkage.
- On the twenty-seventh day, we learnt about Lehar.
- On the twenty-eighth day, we learnt about the history of the Hindustani Music.
- On the twenty-ninth day, we learnt about Dhrupad.
- On the thirtieth day, we learnt about Rupaktal that I was introduced to, a few months back, by my friend Anand Desai.
- On the thirty-first day, we learnt about Khayal.
- On the thirty-second day, we learnt about Thumri.
- On the thirty-third day, we learnt about Tappa.
- On the thirty-fourth day, we learnt about Tarana.
- On the thirty-fifth day, we learnt about Tal Dipchandi (Moghali).
- On the thirty-sixth day, we learnt about Tabla.
- On the thirty-seventh day, we learnt about Kirtan.
- On the thirty-eighth day, we learnt about Pakhawaj.
- On the thirty-ninth day, we learnt about Hori.
- On the fortieth day, we learnt about Dadra.
- On the forty-first day, we learnt about Kajri.
- On the forty-second day, we learnt about Chaiti.
- On the forty-third day, we learnt about Sarangi.
- On the forty-fourth day, we learnt about Shehnai.
- On the forty-fifth day, we learnt about Sarod.
- On the forty-sixth day, we learnt about Bansuri.
- On the forty-seventh day, we learnt about Ektal and Tanpura.
- On the forty-eighth day, we learnt about Veena.
- On the forty-ninth day, we repeated our learning of Veena with a small excitement added.
- On the fiftieth day, we learnt about Dilruba/Esraj.
- On the fifty-first day, we learnt about Jaltarang.
- On the fifty-second day we learnt about Qawwali.
- On the fifty-third day, we learnt about Sitar.
- On the fifty-fourth day, we learnt about Surbahar.
- On the fifty-fifth day, we learnt about Harmonium.
- On the fifty-sixth day, we learnt about Santoor.
- On the fifty-seventh day, we learnt about Swarmandal.
- On the fifty-eighth day, we learnt about the Shruti Box.
- On the fifty-ninth day, we learnt about Alankar.
- On the sixtieth day, we learnt about singing in Aakaar.
- On the sixty-first day, we learnt about the Classification of Indian Musical Instruments.
- On the sixty-second day, we learnt a little about Carnatic Music.
- On the sixty-third day, we learnt about Natya Shastra.
- And today, on the sixty-fourth day, we learnt about evolution of musical instruments in India down the ages.
There is much more still to be learnt and enjoyed.
Please stay tuned!
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