Raaga Based Song of the Day: Ai dil mujhe aisi jagah le chal jahan koi na ho….
Raag Adana, Tal Kaherava
We have completed fifty-eight days of Raaga Based Songs of the Day. Our first post in the series was titled ‘Raaga Based Song Of The Day #1’ and the song was a Mohammad Rafi and Lata Mangeshkar song from the 1970 Shakti Samanta movie Pagla Kahin Ka: Tum mujhe youn bhula na paoge. It is in Raag Jhinjhoti, Tal Kaherava.
Our fifty-eighth post or the last post was titled ‘Raaga Based Song Of The Day #58‘ and the song was a Sadhana Sargam song from the 2005 Deepa Mehta movie Water starring Seema Biswas, Lisa Ray, John Abraham and Sarla Kariyawasam: Naina neer bahaye. It is in Raag Bhatiyar, Tal Kaherava.
This blog has a number of posts on Raaga based songs in Hindi movies titled similarly; for example: ‘The Best Raaga Based Songs in Hindi Movies – Raaga Bhairavi – Part I‘.
In the last fifty-eight days of sharing Raaga based songs of the day, I have given you songs based on Raag Jhinjhoti, Gara, Bhimpalasi, Madhuvanti, Shivaranjani, Bihag, Pahadi, Sarang, Pilu, Bhairavi, Khammaj, Charukesi, Kalyan or Yaman, Desh, Malgunji, Kirwani, Kedar, Bageshri, Megh Malhar, Bhupali, Ahir Bhairav, Malkaush, Mand, Adana, Kafi, Rageshri, Jaunpuri, Tilang, Janasammohini, Chayanat, Shuddha Kalyan, Gaur Sarang, Jogiya, Asavari, Maru Bihag, Durga, Lalit, Puria Dhanashri, Bhinna Sahdja, Sohani, Multani, Patdeep, Jaijaiwanti, Tilak Kamod, Hemant, Basant Mukhari, Gujri Todi, Kalavati, Hamir and Bhatiyar. The only five raagas that have been repeated so far are Pahadi, the raaga of my home place in the Himalayas, Maru Bihag, Raag Kirwani, Jhinjhoti and Bhairavi. That makes a total of 50 raagas so far. Today, I am repeating Raag Adana.
Today, I give you a song sung by Talat Mehmood on the lyrics of Majrooh Sultanpuri and on a composition by Anil Biswas. As I said, it is in Raag Adana, Tal Kaherava. The last time I gave you a song in this raag was on the 25th day when I gave you Manmohan mein ho tumhi in Tintal (Please see ‘Raaga Based Song Of The Day #25‘)
However, first, lets take up the value added learning of today. Today, we shall learn about Alankar.
Alankar literally means ornaments or adornments. In India, Alankar or Alankara means ornaments or adornments. In classical music, Alankar does exactly what ornaments and adornments do to a woman; these enhance the inherent beauty.
Alankar is even more ancient than most raagas; Between 200 BC and 200 AD, there are references to Alankar in Bharata’s Natyashastra. Natyashastra has a total of 33 types of Alankars. Subsequently, these were increased to more than 60 types of Alankars in the treatises.
There are mainly two types of Alankars mentioned in the ancient texts: Varnalankar and Shabdalankar; that is, varna based or shabda (voice) based. Varna refers to the four varnas: sthayi, aaroha, avaroha and sanchari. These are arrangements of notes in a particular sequence that we learnt about fairly early and hence I am not going to repeat here. Shabda refers to the aesthetic aspect whereas varna refers to the structural aspect; it is basically related to shabd or voice of either human being or instrument. Therefore, Shabdalankar would include everything that a performer wove both melodically and rhythmically outside the periphery of the fixed composition of raaga. In other words, all the extempore variations that a performer created during a performance within the raga and tala limits could be termed as alankar, because these variations embellished and enhanced the beauty of the raga, the tala and the composition. Therefore, it is now easy to make out that great vocalists or instrumentalists always went beyond the confines of rigid structures and added their personal touch to the performances through Alankar. It is another thing, that even the process of adding these adornments or ornamentation has been elaborately defined now; making even that somewhat rigid and may only vary between, say, gharanas; which too we learnt at a fairly early stage. When we talk about alankars today, we specifically refer to embellishments to a swar or a note.
“In Indian music and especially in raga sangeet, staccato or straight isolated notes are almost unheard of. In instrumental music too, with the exception of some instruments, the notes are never static either. Each note has some link with its preceding or succeeding note. It is this extra note or grace note that lays the foundation of all alankars. The shrutis or microtones that are so important in raga sangeet demand this ‘mobile’ nature of the swaras in Indian music.”
“The alankars in common use today comprise Meend (varieties of glides linking two or more notes), Kan (grace note), Sparsh and Krintan (both dealing with grace notes – especially as applied in plucked stringed instruments), Andolan (a slow oscillation between adjacent notes and shrutis), Gamak (heavy forceful oscillations between adjacent and distant notes), Kampit (an oscillation or a vibrato on a single note), Gitkari or Khatka (cluster of notes embellishing a single note), Zamzama (addition of notes, with sharp gamaks) and Murki (a swift and subtle taan-like movement).”
As I mentioned, today’s song is composed in Raag Adana, Tal Kaherava.
Raag Adana belongs to Asavari Thaat. Raag Adana resembles Raag Darbari Kanada, with the difference that Gandhar is forbidden in Aaroh in Adana. This Raag is rendered mostly in Madhya and Tar Saptaks unlike Raag Darbari Kanada, which is more deep and hence is rendered in Madhya and Mandra Saptaks (Octaves). In this Raag, Komal Gandhar and Komal Dhaivat should not be repeated (oscillated) otherwise Raag Darbari Kanada makes its appearance. Like Darbari Kanada, this Raag does not employ Meend and Gamak, as this is a flittering dynamic type melodic form. Its Jati (and by now you understand this completely) is Shadhav-Smapurna Vakra. It is normally to be sung during the second prahar of the night, that is, between 9 PM and midnight. Adana was a major raga in the 17th century and a combination of the then current ragas Malhar and Kanada. In a ragamala painting from Mewar it is depicted as an ascetic man sitting on a tiger skin, however, Somanatha describes him as Kama the god of love. His Adana was quite different from the raga as it is performed today.
Some of the songs composed in this raaga are:
|Jhanak Jhanak Payal
Jaa Main Tose
Manmohan Man Mein
Lapak Jhapak Tu
Mukh Se Na Boloon
Ghar Aaja Meray
Jab Ishaq Kahin Ho Jaata Hai
Saanware Mat Ja
Tumhe Jo bhi
Cham Cham Baje Re
Dil Ka Fasaana
Aap ki nzaron ne samajha
Radhike tune bansuri
|Jhanak Jhanak Payal Bajay
|Ustaad Amir Khan & Chorus
Rafi, Suman, S. D. Batish
Manna Dey & Chorus
Lata Mangeshkar, Talat
Asha Bhosle, Mubarak Begum
The song Ai dil mujhe aisi jagah le chal jahan koi na ho is from the 1950 Shaheed Lateef movie called Arzoo starring Dilip Kumar, Kamini Kaushal and Shashikala. The movie’s story was penned by Ismat Chugtai who later wrote MS Sathyu’s Garam Hawa.
The song was penned by Majrooh Sultanpuri and composed by Anil Biswas. It was sung by Talat Mehmood.
Please enjoy in Raag Adana, Tal Kaherava: Ai dil mujhe aisi jagah le chal jahan koi na ho….
Ai dil mujhe aisii jagah le chal jahaa.N koI na ho
Apanaa paraayaa meharabaa.n naa-Meharabaa.n koI na ho
Ai dil mujhe aisii jagah le chal
Jaa kar kahii.n kho jaauu.N mai.n, nii.nd aae aur so jaauu.N mai.n
Nii.nd aae aur so jaauu.N mai.n
Duniyaa mujhe Dhuu.NDhe magar meraa nishaa.n koI na ho
Ai dil mujhe aisii jagah le chal
Ulfat kaa badalaa mil gayaa, vo Gam luTaa vo dil gayaa
Vo Gam luTaa vo dil gayaa
Chalanaa hai sab se duur duur ab kaaravaa.n koI na ho
Apanaa paraayaa meharabaa.n naa-meharabaa.n koI na ho
Ai dil mujhe aisii jagah le chal jahaa.N koI na ho
We have intended to learn about Raaga based music whilst we entertain ourselves with Raaga based songs. So, lets, once again, take stock of our collective learning so far:
- On the first day we learnt about the Raaga system devised by Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, which is the prevalent system in Hindustani Classical Music and based on ten Thaats.
- On the second day we learnt about Tal or Taal.
- On the third day we learnt about characteristics of Raagas that included Swar, Jati, Thaat, Arohana and Avarohana, Vadi, Samvadi and Pakad.
- On the fourth day, we learnt about Sargam.
- On the fifth day, we learnt about notations used in Indian classical music or simply Swar Lipi.
- On the sixth day, we learnt about the Ras (sentiments) that Raagas evoke.
- On the seventh day, we learnt about various types of Swar: Shuddha, Achal, Vikrut, Komal and Teevra.
- On the eighth day, we learnt the parts of a composition in Indian Classical Music.
- On the ninth day, we learnt the names of some of the popular instruments used in Indian Classical Music.
- On the tenth day, we learnt about the sources of names of Raagas.
- On the eleventh day, we learnt about why Bhairavi is the first raag to be taught to beginners and also why it is the last in a performance.
- On the twelfth day, we learnt about Khammaj Thaat.
- On the thirteenth day, we learnt about Tal Punjabi Theka or Sitarkhani.
- On the fourteenth day, we learnt about Alap.
- On the fifteenth day, we learnt about List of Raagas (Raagmala) in my favourite book: Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
- On the sixteenth day, we learnt about tips for raaga identification.
- On the seventeenth day, we learnt the basics of Gharana system.
- On the eighteenth day, we learnt about Filmi Sangeet.
- On the nineteenth day, we learnt about the commonest Tal in Raagas: Tintal.
- On the twentieth day, we learnt about the Kafi Thaat.
- On the twenty-first day, we learnt a little more in detail about the classification of Raagas.
- On the twenty-second day, we learnt the essential differences between Bhairavi and Bhairav.
- On the twenty-third day, we learnt a little more in detail about the Jati or Jaati of a raaga.
- On the twenty-fourth day, we learnt details of Thaat Bilawal, the most basic thaat in the Bhatkhande’s system of raagas.
- On the twenty-fifth day, we learnt about Tintal.
- On the twenty-sixth day, we learnt in detail about the Raaga – Samay linkage.
- On the twenty-seventh day, we learnt about Lehar.
- On the twenty-eighth day, we learnt about the history of the Hindustani Music.
- On the twenty-ninth day, we learnt about Dhrupad.
- On the thirtieth day, we learnt about Rupaktal that I was introduced to, a few months back, by my friend Anand Desai.
- On the thirty-first day, we learnt about Khayal.
- On the thirty-second day, we learnt about Thumri.
- On the thirty-third day, we learnt about Tappa.
- On the thirty-fourth day, we learnt about Tarana.
- On the thirty-fifth day, we learnt about Tal Dipchandi (Moghali).
- On the thirty-sixth day, we learnt about Tabla.
- On the thirty-seventh day, we learnt about Kirtan.
- On the thirty-eighth day, we learnt about Pakhawaj.
- On the thirty-ninth day, we learnt about Hori.
- On the fortieth day, we learnt about Dadra.
- On the forty-first day, we learnt about Kajri.
- On the forty-second day, we learnt about Chaiti.
- On the forty-third day, we learnt about Sarangi.
- On the forty-fourth day, we learnt about Shehnai.
- On the forty-fifth day, we learnt about Sarod.
- On the forty-sixth day, we learnt about Bansuri.
- On the forty-seventh day, we learnt about Ektal and Tanpura.
- On the forty-eighth day, we learnt about Veena.
- On the forty-ninth day, we repeated our learning of Veena with a small excitement added.
- On the fiftieth day, we learnt about Dilruba/Esraj.
- On the fifty-first day, we learnt about Jaltarang.
- On the fifty-second day we learnt about Qawwali.
- On the fifty-third day, we learnt about Sitar.
- On the fifty-fourth day, we learnt about Surbahar.
- On the fifty-fifth day, we learnt about Harmonium.
- On the fifty-sixth day, we learnt about Santoor.
- On the fifty-seventh day, we learnt about Swarmandal.
- On the fifty-eighth day, we learnt about the Shruti Box.
- And today, on the fifty-ninth day, we learnt about Alankar.
There is much more still to be learnt and enjoyed.
Please stay tuned!
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